Monday, February 24, 2020

Foods to avoid if you're over 65

Older people are at higher risk of food poisoning. And, some foods are more likely to cause food poisoning than others. Here's advice on which foods to avoid or be careful with when you’re over 65.
Some foods can cause food poisoning if they're contaminated with certain bugs.
While most healthy people recover from food poisoning without treatment, you're especially vulnerable to a bout of severe (even life-threatening) food poisoning if you're over 65 because your immune system isn't as strong as that of someone younger and it's harder for your body to fight off germs.
Food poisoning isn't just a nuisance. The symptoms in people over 65 are often worse than in younger people, and can lead to dangerous complications such as dehydration.
Older people can also take longer to recover from food poisoning.
If you have symptoms of food poisoning seek medical help straight away.
Here are foods to be careful with:
(This advice also applies to anyone with a weakened immune system, including people with an underlying health condition, pregnant women and babies and young children.)

Some soft cheeses

It's best to avoid eating mould-ripened soft cheese, such as brie and camembert along with soft blue cheeses, such as danish blue, gorgonzola and roquefort, and any unpasteurised soft cheeses.
These cheeses can be risky to eat when you're older because they may be less acidic and contain more moisture than hard cheeses, which makes them an ideal environment for food-poisoning bugs, particularly listeria, to grow in. Cooked soft cheeses are fine because heat kills this bacteria.


Try to steer clear of all types of fresh or chilled pâté, including vegetable pâtés, as they can contain listeria. Tinned pâté should be harmless as it will have gone through a heat treatment as part of the canning process.

Raw or runny eggs

Eggs produced under the British Lion Code of Practice are safe to eat raw or partially cooked (runny). These eggs have a red lion logo stamped on their shell.
However, people who have a weakened immune system and are on special diets should cook eggs thoroughly (until the whites and yolks are solid).
Avoid any eggs not produced under the lion code if they are raw or undercooked, and any foods that contain them, such as homemade mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce. This is because they increase your risk of salmonella food poisoning.
Make sure eggs without the lion code are thoroughly cooked until the whites and yolks are solid.
Duck eggs, quail eggs and goose eggs should be cooked until the whites and yolk are solid.

Cold meats

Many cold meats such as salami, prosciutto, chorizo and pepperoni are not cooked, just cured and fermented, so there's a risk that they contain toxoplasmosis-causing parasites. It's best to check the instructions on the pack to see whether the product is ready-to-eat or needs cooking first.
For ready-to-eat meats, you can reduce any risk from parasites by freezing cured/fermented meats for 4 days at home before you eat them. Freezing kills most parasites and so makes the meat safer to eat.
If you're planning to cook the meat (for instance, pepperoni on pizza) then you don't need to freeze it first.
If you're eating out in a restaurant that sells cold cured/fermented meats they may not have been frozen. If you're concerned, ask the staff or avoid eating it.

Raw or undercooked meat and poultry

Be careful at barbecues. Rare or undercooked meat – especially poultry, sausages and burgers – can harbour food poisoning bugs such as salmonella, campylobacter and E.coli.
Make sure you cook meat or poultry thoroughly so there's no trace of pink or blood. And remember to wash your hands along with all kitchen surfaces and knives after preparing raw meat or poultry to prevent spreading any harmful bugs..

Raw shellfish

Hold the oysters! Raw shellfish (such as mussels, lobster, crab, prawns, scallops and clams) can contain harmful bacteria and viruses that can trigger food poisoning.
Cooked shellfish is safe, as are cold pre-cooked prawns.


Sushi and other dishes made with raw fish are fine as long as the fish has been frozen first. This is because fish occasionally contains small parasitic worms that can make you ill, but freezing kills the worms and makes raw fish safe to eat.
Sushi sold in shops is generally "bought in" and therefore safe to eat because it will have been previously frozen appropriately.
If you make your own sushi at home, freeze the fish for at least 4 days before using it.


Don't drink raw (unpasteurised) milk. Instead, stick to pasteurised or UHT (ultra-heat treated) milk – sometimes also called long-life milk.
In reality, all the milk sold in shops and supermarkets will be pasteurised or UHT; you can only buy unpasteurised milk direct from farms, farm shops and at registered farmers' markets.

Bean sprouts

Beware of raw or lightly cooked bean sprouts as they're a potential source of food poisoning.
The warm, moist conditions required to grow sprouts are ideal for the rapid growth of bacteria. So make sure to cook all sprouted seeds thoroughly until they're steaming hot throughout before eating them

Food and drinks for sport

food for sport
Find out what food and drink will help you get the most out of your sport and fitness activities .
You should aim to eat a healthy, balanced diet whatever your activity level, as this will provide you with all the nutrients you need.
If you need specialist nutrition advice, contact the Sport and Exercise Nutrition Register (SENr).
The Eatwell Guide shows you how much you should eat from each food group to get the balance right.

Food for energy

Starchy and other forms of carbohydrate provide a source of energy for your body to perform at its best, no matter what your sport or activity.
In general, the more you exercise, the more carbohydrate you need to include in your daily meals and around exercise. 
A demanding exercise regime will use up your stored energy from carbohydrate quickly, so include some carbohydrate in most of your meals.
A diet low in carbohydrate can lead to a lack of energy during exercise, loss of concentration, and delayed recovery.
If you wish to adopt a lower carbohydrate diet for your sport, you should seek specialist advice.

Healthy sources of carbohydrate include:

  • wholegrain bread
  • wholegrain breakfast cereals (including some cereal bars)
  • brown rice
  • wholewheat pasta 
  • potatoes (with skins on) 
  • fruit, including dried and tinned fruit

Food for muscles

Eating protein-rich foods alone won't build big muscles.
Muscle is gained through a combination of muscle-strengthening exercise, and a diet that contains protein and sufficient energy from a balance of carbohydrates and fats.
Not all the protein you eat is used to build new muscle. If you overeat protein, the excess will be used mostly for energy once your body has what it needs for muscle repair.
Most fitness enthusiasts can get enough protein from a healthy, varied diet without having to increase their protein intake significantly. 

Healthy sources of protein:

  • beans, peas and lentils 
  • cheese, yoghurt and milk 
  • fish, including oily fish like salmon or mackerel
  • eggs
  • tofu, tempeh and other plant-based meat-alternatives 
  • lean cuts of meat and mince
  • chicken and other poultry
A source of protein should be included at most mealtimes to optimise muscle building.
Taking in protein before and after a workout has been shown to help kickstart the muscle repair process.

Training protein snacks:

  • milk of all types – but lower-fat types contain less energy
  • unsweetened soy drink 
  • natural dairy yoghurt of all types – including Greek yoghurt and kefir
  • soy yoghurt and other plant-based alternatives
  • unsalted mixed nuts and seeds 
  • unsweetened dried fruit 
  • boiled eggs 
  • hummus with carrot and celery sticks

Food before sport and exercise

You should allow about three hours before you exercise after having a main meal, such as breakfast or lunch.
An hour before exercising, having a light snack that contains some protein, and is higher in carbohydrate and lower in fat, is a good choice to help you perform during your training and recover afterwards.
Choose a snack that you'll digest quickly, like:
  • porridge 
  • fruit, such as a banana  
  • a slice of wholegrain bread spread thinly with a nut butter
  • a plain or fruit scone with low-fat cheese
  • yoghurt or non-dairy alternatives 
  • cottage cheese and crackers
  • a glass of milk or non-dairy alternatives

Snacks to avoid before exercise

These types of food may cause stomach discomfort if eaten just before exercising.
Fatty foods, like:
  • chips or french fries
  • avocados
  • olives
  • crisps
  • full-fat cheeses 
  • large amounts of nuts
High-fibre foods, like:
  • raw vegetables
  • high-fibre cereals
  • raw nuts and seeds

Food and drink during exercise

Most exercise lasting less than 60 minutes only requires water.
If you're exercising for longer, have a quick-digesting carbohydrate and some electrolytes (salts and minerals), such as:
  • an isotonic sports drink
  • a glass of milk 
  • a banana
  • dried fruit
  • a cereal or sports bar
  • carbohydrate gel
Make sure you're drinking enough water (or similar) during your effort.

Water and exercise

Not drinking enough water can have a major effect on your performance.
You should start any exercise session well hydrated. This means drinking water regularly throughout the day.
The choice of drink depends on the intensity and duration of the exercise, and your training goals.
In general:
  • only water is needed for moderate exercise that lasts less than an hour
  • an isotonic sports drink, milk, or a combination of high-carbohydrate food and water for hard sessions that last longer than an hour
You can make a homemade sports drink with 200ml of squash (not low calorie), 800ml water and a large pinch of salt..What to eat after exercise
Food and drink also plays a part in recovering effectively from training.
If you train several times a day, refuelling with a source of carbohydrate and protein – such as a glass of milk and a banana – within 60 minutes of finishing your first session can help you recover faster.
If you're training less than this or have more time to recover, make sure you rehydrate with water and eat as soon as you can afterwards. This might be your next main meal.

Food supplements and exercise

In general, a balanced diet will provide the nutrients and energy necessary for sport without the need for food supplements.
Athletes wanting to use supplements should seek specialist advice from a registered sports performance nutritionist from the Sport and Exercise Nutrition Register (SENr).

Exercise to lose weight

A demanding exercise routine can leave you feeling quite hungry if you're not refuelling correctly in between exercise sessions.
If you're trying to lose weight, you'll need to watch what you eat and drink after your workouts.
If you consume more energy than you burned during your exercise, you may find yourself putting on weight rather than losing it.
A punishing exercise routine may not be the best way to lose weight. Check out our Lose weight section for more advice.

What does 100 calories look like?

what 100 calories looks like
Find out what 100 calories looks like with this selection of everyday foods.

Calories and kilocalories

The term calorie is a commonly used shorthand for "kilocalorie". On food packets, you'll find this written as kcal.
Kilojoules (kJ) are the metric measurement of calories, and you'll see both kJ and kcal on nutrition labels: 4.2kJ is equivalent to approximately 1kcal.

Energy throughout the day

As part of a healthy, balanced diet, women need on average 8,400kJ a day (2,000kcal), while men need on average 10,500kJ a day (2,500kcal).
A rough guide to how your energy requirement can be spread throughout the day is as follows:
  • breakfast: 20% (a fifth of your energy intake)
  • lunch: 30% (about a third of your energy intake)
  • evening meal: 30% (about a third of your energy intake)
  • drinks and snacks: 20% (a fifth of your energy intake)
As you can see, any drinks or snacks you have count towards your daily energy total.
If you eat more for your breakfast, lunch or evening meal, you may need to drop a snack later in the day to stay on track.

Comparing energy values: a visual guide

This guide shows energy values for 10 different foods. This will help you visualise what 100kcal (420kJ) looks like and manage the number of calories you consume.
This amount, 100kcal, represents just 5% of a woman's daily reference intake (4% for men), but this quickly adds up when adding ingredients during cooking or when we reach for a snack.
High-fat foods have more energy because fat contains more than double the calories per gram compared with protein and carbohydrates. 
Foods containing mainly water, such as vegetables, have even less. 
This guide shows how quickly calories can add up in certain foods. 
Some of the photos have household objects, such as a pack of cards, to help illustrate the size.

Calories in oil, mayonnaise and butter

All types of fat are high in energy. A gram of fat provides 9kcal, compared with 4kcal for carbohydrate and protein.
Oil and butter are almost pure fat, which is why 420kJ/100kcal is:
  • just a little over 1 tablespoon of olive oil
  • 1 level tablespoon of mayonnaise
  • just under 1 tablespoon of butter (a thick spread of butter on your bread)
A spoonful of olive oil next to a pack of cards
A 100-calorie portion of olive oil
A level tablespoon of mayonnaise next to a pack of cards
A 100-calorie portion of mayonnaise
Just under 1 tablespoon of butter next to a pack of cards
A 100-calorie portion of butter

Calories in cheese

Most cheese is high in fat, so 420kJ/100kcal is just under a 30g matchbox-sized piece of cheddar cheese.
A matchbox-sized piece of cheddar cheese next to a pack of cards
A 100-calorie portion of cheddar

Calories in sugar

Calories in sugar can add up if not used sparingly, especially for people who drink tea or coffee with sugar throughout the day. Four heaped teaspoons of sugar is 420kJ/100kcal.
4 teaspoons of sugar
A 100-calorie portion of sugar

Calories in biscuits

A lot of biscuits are high in fat and sugar and low in nutrients, so 2 ginger nut biscuits add up to 420kJ/100kcal.
Other biscuits may be higher in energy, such as those covered in or filled with chocolate.
2 ginger nut biscuits next to a CD
A 100-calorie portion of ginger nut biscuits

Calories in crisps

Crisps, which are often high in fat and salt, can quickly add up to 420kJ/100kcal.
For example, the 190g tube of crisps featured in this picture contains nearly 1,000 calories, so just 10% of a tube (9 crisps) equals 420kJ/100kcal.
9 crisps next to a full tube of crisps
A 100-calorie portion of crisps

Calories in meat and fish

The kind of meat you eat could make a big difference to the amount of energy you consume.
For example, this is what 100kcal of steak looks like:
A 100-calorie serving of steak on a plate next to a pack of cards and a CD
A 100-calorie portion of steak
On the other hand, turkey and fish are both low in fat and lower in energy, so 420kJ/100kcal is about 3 slices of turkey or a few spoonfuls of plain large prawns.
3 turkey slices on a plate next to a pack of cards and a CD
A 100-calorie portion of turkey
A serving of prawns on a plate
A 100-calorie portion of prawns

Calories in dried fruit

For 420kJ/100kcal, you'll get just over a 30g portion of raisins.
A 30g serving of dried fruit counts as 1 of your 5 A Day, whereas an 80g serving of fresh fruit, such as grapes or cherries, counts as 1 of your 5 A Day.
Small bunches of cherries and grapes, and a pile of raisins next to a tennis ball
100-calorie portions of cherries, grapes and raisins

Calories in fresh fruit

For 420kJ/100kcal, you can tuck into any of the following:
  • a large apple
  • a banana
  • 1.5 grapefruit
An apple, banana, punnet of strawberries, and a 1 and a half grapefruits on a table
100-calorie portions of fresh fruit
These all count towards your 5 A Day, which should include a variety of fruit and vegetables.

Calories in vegetables

Vegetables are generally low in calories, while bringing the added benefits of fibre, vitamins and minerals.
To illustrate this, 420kJ/100kcal is equal to:
  • 3 whole cucumbers
  • 2 heads of lettuce
  • 3 carrots weighing around 120g each
3 cucumbers, 3 carrots and 2 heads of lettuce on a table
100-calorie portions of veg

Check the nutrition label

Remember, this page is only intended as an illustration. All foods vary in energy content and this can depend on how they're made or prepared, and how much you eat.
Most prepackaged foods have a nutrition label on the side or back of the packaging, which will give a guide to the energy content.
Get advice on counting calories in non-packaged foods, such as loose fruit and vegetables or fresh bread.
Read about understanding calories for more information about energy values in food.

5 A Day and your family

Do you cook and shop for a family household, including a fussy eater or two?
It's easier than you might think to ensure everyone gets 5 portions of fruit and vegetables a day.
There are many ways to introduce more fruit and vegetables into your family's diet. The wider the variety of fruit and vegetables you eat, the better.
Dietitian Azmina Govindji gives a few simple tips and ideas to get you started.

Fruit and veg throughout the day

There are plenty of 5 A Day opportunities throughout your family's day.
"Not all those opportunities are immediately obvious," says Azmina. "A cooked breakfast, for example, can give you several portions if you have grilled mushrooms, baked beans, grilled tomatoes and a glass of unsweetened 100% fruit juice."
Limit fruit juice and smoothies to a combined total of 150ml a day. Remember to keep it to mealtimes, as it can cause tooth decay. Watch out for drinks that say "juice drink" on the pack, as they are unlikely to count towards your 5 A Day.
For more information, see 5 A Day: what counts.

Other 5 A Day opportunities

If you have cereal or porridge for breakfast, add some fruit, such as sliced bananas, strawberries or sultanas.
Morning break at school
 All children aged between 4 and 6 at Local Education Authority-maintained schools are entitled to one free piece of fruit or vegetable a day, which is usually given out at break time. If your child is older, you could send them to school with a piece of fruit to eat at break time. The School Food Regulations ensure that fruit or vegetables are provided at all school food outlets, including breakfast clubs, tuck shops and vending machines.
Lunchtime at school 
A school lunch provides your child with at least a portion of fruit and a portion of vegetables. If you give your child a packed lunch, there are many ways you can add fruit and vegetables. Put salad in their sandwiches, or give them carrot or celery sticks, cherry tomatoes, satsumas or seedless grapes. A lot of swapping goes on at lunch, so talk to other parents to see if you can all give your children at least one portion. Dried fruit counts towards their 5 A Day, so why not try a handful of sultanas or a few dried apricots as a dessert? But remember, to reduce the risk of tooth decay, dried fruit is best enjoyed as part of a meal, not as a between-meal snack.
On the way home from school 
At home time, kids are often very hungry. Take this opportunity to give them a fresh fruit or vegetable snack. This could be a banana, a pear, clementines or carrot sticks. When they're really hungry, this can be a good time to get them to try foods they might otherwise refuse.
Dinner time 
Get into the habit of having 2 different vegetables on the dinner table. You don't have to insist that the children eat them, but if you always do, they may end up trying them. Vegetables in dishes such as stews and casseroles also count. Avoid adding extra fat, salt and sugar, and use lean cuts of meat.

Plan 5 A Day snacks

When it comes to snacks, it pays to plan ahead. "Think about times when snacking happens in your family," says Azmina. "Then think what you can do to replace your usual snack with fruit or vegetables."
Making fresh fruit and veg easy to get to is often helpful. When they're peckish, children will often reach for whatever is closest to hand.
Keep a fruit bowl in the living room. Encourage your children to snack from the bowl, rather than hunting for snacks in the kitchen.
You could also keep fresh fruit washed and ready to eat in the fridge. They'll be more tempting when you fancy an instant snack.
Similarly, keep snack-ready vegetables in the fridge, too. Wash and cut up carrots or celery.
Family days out are prime snacking time. Save money by taking bananas or carrot, celery or pepper sticks with you instead of buying expensive snacks once you're out.
Get some inspiration with these easy 100-calorie snacks.

Get children involved in 5 A Day

Getting your child involved in choosing and preparing fruit and vegetables can encourage them to eat more.
"Familiarise young children with the colours and shapes of fruits and vegetables as early as possible," says Azmina.
"Each weekly shop, let them choose a fruit or vegetable they'd like to try. Supervise your child in the kitchen while they help you prepare it."
Present your children with as wide a variety of fruit and vegetables as possible and make eating them a normal part of family life.
"If your children aren't keen, canned vegetables, such as sweetcorn, lentils and peas, can be a good place to start," says Azmina. Choose canned vegetables in water with no added sugar, and canned fruit in natural fruit juice, rather than syrup.
Disguising vegetables, by grating carrots into bolognese sauce, for example, can also work, but don't rely solely on this.
"Try not to reinforce the idea that vegetables are unpleasant and always need to be hidden in foods. Instead, have fun together by trying lots of different fruit and veg, and finding what your children like."

Tomato pasta sauce

Tomato pasta sauce
Tasty and rich, this easy-to-make tomato sauce is great with pasta, and can be made in advance and reheated. It's low in salt and fat, and is suitable for vegetarians too.
  • Serves: 2
  • Time: 35 minutes


  • 1 tsp vegtable oil
  • 1 onion, finely chopped
  • 1 garlic clove, finely chopped
  • 1 400g tin of chopped tomatoes
  • 2 tbsp tomato purée
  • a pinch of mixed dried herbs
  • pepper to taste
  • 210g dry wholewheat pasta


  1. Heat the oil in a saucepan or frying pan. Cook the onion on a medium heat until soft.
  2. Add the garlic and cook for another minute. Make sure the pan is not too hot when you add the garlic, as it burns easily and will make the sauce taste bitter.
  3. Add the tin of chopped tomatoes, tomato purée and mixed herbs.
  4. Simmer gently for 15 minutes until the sauce is thick and rich.
  5. Add pepper to taste.
  6. Cook the pasta according to packet instructions, mix in with the sauce and serve topped with fresh herbs.

Other options

Add a tin of tuna or some sliced vegetables to the sauce at step 3. Try mushrooms, peppers or courgettes.
Pour the sauce over fish fillets and bake in the oven at 180C (gas mark 4) for 15 to 20 minutes.
Use the sauce as a pizza topping. Just sprinkle with grated reduced-fat cheese and your favourite vegetables.

Nutrition information

NutrientPer 100gPer 460g serving
(of which sugars)2.5g11.5g
(of which saturates)0.1g0.4g

Allergy advice

Be aware that:
  • this recipe contains wheat (gluten)
  • some pasta contains egg, so always check the label
  • some tomato purées contain wheat

Food safety tips

When cooking:
  • always wash your hands, work surfaces, utensils and chopping boards before you start preparing food
  • wash or peel raw vegetables before use, as this will help clean them and remove any harmful bacteria that might be on the outside

How to wash fruit and vegetables

Advice on storing, washing and preparing fruit and vegetables to prevent food poisoning, including E. coli.
It is important to wash all fruit and vegetables before you eat them to ensure they are clean and safe to eat.
Most people are aware of the importance of handling meat safely, but many consider the risk of food poisoning from vegetables to be low.
But this risk was highlighted in the 2011 Escherichia coli (E. coli) outbreak in the UK. Soil stuck on leeks and potatoes is thought to have been the source of the outbreak, which involved 250 cases of E. coli infection.

How should fruit and vegetables be washed?

Washing will help remove bacteria, including E.coli, from the surface of fruit and vegetables.
Most of the bacteria will be in the soil attached to the produce. Washing to remove any soil is, therefore, particularly important.
When you wash vegetables, wash them under a running tap and rub them under water, for example in a bowl of fresh water. Start with the least soiled items first and give each of them a final rinse.
Washing loose produce is particularly important as it tends to have more soil attached to it than pre-packaged fruit and vegetables.
It is always advisable to wash all fruit and vegetables before you eat them to ensure they are clean and to help remove bacteria from the outside.
Peeling or cooking fruit and vegetables can also remove bacteria.

What is the key advice for safely storing, handling and cooking raw vegetables?

  • Always wash your hands thoroughly before and after handling raw food, including vegetables.
  • Keep raw food, including vegetables, separate from ready-to-eat foods.
  • Use different chopping boards, knives and utensils for raw and ready-to-eat foods, or wash these items thoroughly in between uses.
  • Check the label – unless packaging around vegetables says "ready to eat", you must wash, peel or cook them before eating.

How can I avoid cross-contamination?

To prevent cross-contamination:
  • always wash your hands after handling raw food
  • store raw and ready-to-eat foods separately
  • store raw meat in sealable containers at the bottom of your fridge so that it cannot drip onto other foods
  • use a different chopping board for raw food and ready-to-eat food, or wash it thoroughly in between preparing different types of food
  • clean knives and other utensils thoroughly after using them with raw food
  • do not wash raw meat or poultry – any harmful bacteria will be killed by thorough cooking, and washing may splash harmful bacteria around the kitchen

How do bacteria get onto vegetables?

Bacteria can get onto fruit and vegetables in several ways. They may be present in water used for irrigation, organic fertilisers, or droppings from birds and other animals that go into fields.

Should people who might be vulnerable to infection handle raw vegetables?

There are no indications that loose vegetables are regularly contaminated with E.coli or other harmful bacteria.
People who are vulnerable to infection, such as pregnant women, the elderly or anyone with a weakened immune system, should follow the guidelines on preparation and good hygiene carefully. There is no need for them to avoid preparing such foods.
Children should be encouraged to wash their hands after handling loose vegetables as part of food preparation, shopping or during craft activities.

How should I handle loose vegetables when out shopping?

The risk of infection from handling loose vegetables remains small as long as good hygiene practice is observed.
It's not necessary or practical to wash your hands after handling loose vegetables or fruit every time you're out shopping. 
If you intend to eat foods immediately after shopping, then it would be advisable to wash your hands and those of any children that might have handled loose vegetables.
When selecting loose vegetables, bear in mind that more heavily soiled vegetables may take longer to prepare at home.

Should I avoid buying vegetables with soil on them?

No. Some vegetables are always sold with some soil on them. It's good practice to remove as much soil as possible when preparing vegetables.
Loose vegetables may involve a bit more preparation than if they are pre-packed, but as long as this is done carefully there is no need to avoid them.
Bear in mind that more heavily soiled vegetables may take longer to prepare for cooking.
It is also important to note that although soil was considered to be the most likely source of the 2011 E. coli contamination, this is not known for certain.

Why can there be problems with vegetables?

There have been several previous outbreaks linked to salad vegetables, which are consumed raw.
However, illness linked to root vegetables is much less common because most root vegetables are cooked before being eaten.
There is always a risk of harmful bacteria on loose vegetables spreading to other food if produce is not stored, washed and cooked properly.